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The Nursing Process

Week 5: Data Collection and Measurement

Access the following information. You may read the PDF online or download it.

American Nurses Association. (2014). Fast facts: The nursing workforce 2014: Growth, salaries, education, demographics & trends. ANA. http://nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ThePracticeofProfessionalNursing/workforce/Fast-Facts-2014-Nursing-Workforce.pdf (Links to an external site.)

  1. Review these facts, and describe what the results say about this sample of the nursing workforce.
  2. What do you believe was the intent of the researcher who designed the survey?
  3. The next process for our study is to collect data. The research design will indicate the best data to be collected. The tools that we use to collect data need to be reliable and valid. Define these terms with respect to research, and explain why they are important.
  4. Consider data collection and measurement methods for your nursing clinical issue. Explain how you would collect data and what measurement methods you would use.

    Week 5 already!

    Measurement is a powerful tool used in research. Quantitative and qualitative research designs both use some sort of measurement to reach conclusions about the research question. The credibility and reputation of the research are dependent upon the measurement of the right things. Not always an easy feat. The conclusions of the research study are completely dependent upon the researcher gathering and measuring the correct items.

    I look forward to another great week in the threaded discussion and appreciate all your experience and knowledge sharing. What a great class!

    Dr. Taulbee

    Instructor and class,

         The researchers in the study by American Nurses Association (2014) focused on a descriptive quantitative method. Quantitative data was transformed into usable-reliable statistics and nursing trend. This research shows a measurable data that was formulated to uncover patterns in nursing career. The intention of the researcher was to provide a detailed information on the latest trends in nursing including but not limited to salary, nursing ratios, job growths/shortage, and much more. The key indicators of the quality of a measuring instrument are the reliability and validity of the measures (Parahoo, 2014). The process of developing and validating an instrument is to a great part focused on reducing error in the measurement process. Reliability estimates evaluate the stability of measures, internal consistency of measurement instruments, and interrupter reliability of instrument scores (Houser, 2015). Validity is the extent to which the interpretations of the results of a test are warranted, which depends on the particular use the test is intended to serve (Houser, 2015). The credibility of a study as evidence for practice is entirely dependent on identifying, measuring and collecting the right data. A reliable measurement strategy is critical for real evidence. The confidence in the result is also dependent upon a reliable data collection plan. To collect the research data for my research, I will perform a systematic literature review and will employ the methodology of a literature review. As a result, the research is likely to be mixed methods since, as pointed out by Booth, Papaioannou, and Sutton (2016), the specific approach to the analysis depends on the type of the data provided by the sources.

    References

    American Nurses Association. (2014). Fast facts: The nursing workforce 2014: Growth, salaries, education, demographics & trends. Retrieved from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ThePracticeofProfessionalNursing/workforce

    Booth, A., Papaioannou, D., & Sutton, A. (2016). Systematic approaches to a successful literature review (2nd ed.). New York, NY: SAGE.

    Houser, J. (2015). Nursing research: Reading, using and creating evidence (3rd ed.). Denver, C.O.: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

    Parahoo, K. (2014). Nursing research: principles, process and issues. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Dear Yenisleydi,

    What will you be looking for in the literature review? How will this method answer your research question? Please review what Houser says about quantitative descriptive statistics.

    Thanks,

    Dr. Taulbee

    Dr. Taulbee and Class,

    Access the following information. You may read the PDF online or download it.

    American Nurses Association. (2014). Fast facts: The nursing workforce 2014: Growth, salaries, education, demographics & trends. ANA. http://nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ThePracticeofProfessionalNursing/workforce/Fast-Facts-2014-Nursing-Workforce.pdf

    Review these facts, and describe what the results say about this sample of the nursing workforce.

    The results of the survey tell the reader about the 2014 trends in the Growth, Salaries, Education and demographics. It provided statistics on the growth rate of jobs for new nurses as well as those who have been in the profession for a while. It also gives the stats for the nursing needs. Shortages, salaries by degree and locations. It gives the reader a glimpse into where the nursing profession is and where it is headed by year 2020. The nursing workforce appears to be in a never- ending shortage. Nursing degree requirements are becoming greater, as most jobs are now wanting nurses to have a Bachelor’s degree or higher, however due to the shortage of nurses, associate degrees are still accepted. It also shows us that there are a great number of nurses retiring and the number of nurses entering the workforce are far less. “With more than 555,100 seasoned RNs anticipated to retire by 2022, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics projects the need to produce 1.1 million new RNs” (ANA, 2014).

    What do you believe was the intent of the researcher who designed the survey?

    I believe that the intent of the researcher was to give a clear picture of where the nursing workforce is and where it will be in the foreseeable future. By providing data regarding location and pay scales by region and degree, provides potential, new and seasoned nurses where the most beneficial areas are to pursue a career.

    The next process for our study is to collect data. The research design will indicate the best data to be collected. The tools that we use to collect data need to be reliable and valid. Define these terms with respect to research, and explain why they are important.

    Reliability is the degree to which an instrument is stable internally, among individuals, between raters, and over time (Houser, 2018). Internal reliability occurs when the instrument produces the same results each time it is used. This indicates that the instrument is stable. Certain instruments may need to be calibrated in order to ensure reliable measurement (Chamberlain College of Nursing, 2017). Inter-rater reliability indicates that the instrument produces the same results when different people use it. The raters are stable when this occurs. Inter-rater reliability is particularly important in studies where data are collected by more than one researcher. If there is a lack of reliability (as inter-rater stability is established), we conclude that any significant differences may be due to the inaccurate measurement of the instrument and not because of the variables themselves (Chamberlain College of Nursing, 2017).

    Validity tells us if an instrument can consistently do its job. Content validity is an important research methodology term that refers to how well a test measures the behavior for which it is intended. It assesses if something makes sense. Our text provided an example of the pain scale. Another type of Validity is Construct validity. Construct validity indicates that a measurement captures the hypothetical basis for the variable (Houser, 2018). The criterion-related validity of a test is the most common form of test validation. It compares a test to some criterion. The criterion can be another test or even some type of outcome.

    Consider data collection and measurement methods for your nursing clinical issue. Explain how you would collect data and what measurement methods you would use.

    The clinical issue I chose was “Home care clinicians are required to assess medication knowledge, compliance and potential for errors”. The method that I would use to collect data is Secondary data. Secondary data may be collected from sources that were not created for the current research study (Chamberlain College of Nursing, 2017). The utilization of this existing data provides a viable option for researchers who may have limited time and resources. Secondary data applies the same basic research principles as studies utilizing primary data and has steps to be followed just as any research method (Johnston, 2013). I would collect my data by performing research using the key terms “medication review”, “medication reconciliation”, “medication errors”, and “patient safety”. I would compile data regarding the subject, and try to find some feasible solutions using Evidence Based-Practice.

    Germaine

                                                            References

    American Nurses Association. (2014). Fast facts: The nursing workforce 2014: Growth, salaries, education, demographics & trends. ANA. http://nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ThePracticeofProfessionalNursing/workforce/Fast-Facts-2014-Nursing-Workforce.pdf

    Chamberlain College of Nursing. (2017).NR439 Week 5: Reading Research Literature-Implementing the Study, Data Collection Methods [Online lesson]. Downers Grove, IL: DeVry Education Group Â

    Houser, J. (2018). Nursing research: Reading, using, and creating evidence (4th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.

    Johnston, Melissa, Phd. (2013). Secondary Data Analysis: A Method of which the Time Has Come. (n.d.). Retrieved November 21, 2017, from http://www.bing.com/cr?IG=AC94D4EB32914852B83817CA32128E99&CID=0B9AD4D26D5164631EA8DF906C57650F&rd=1&h=pjVAlkuLj1mjFklCgjI6DYQrFXgQ6yqeqo5Ax5QOPd4&v=1&r=http%3a%2f%2fwww.qqml.net%2fpapers%2fSeptember_2014_Issue%2f336QQML_Journal_2014_Johnston_Sept_619-626.pdf&p=DevEx,5068.1 (Links to an external site.)

    Dear Germaine,

    Do you think that secondary data will help you to answer your PICOT? Why or why not?

    Dr. Taulbee

    Do you think that secondary data will help you to answer your PICOT? Why or why not?

    Dr. Taulbee,

    My topic is “Home care clinicians are required to assess medication knowledge, compliance and potential for errors”. I believe that secondary data is essential to answering my PICCO. Secondary data is Secondary data may be collected from sources that were not created for the current research study. Typically, the researcher looks through records or “mines” the relevant data that pertains to the variables. Examples include but are not limited to patient charts; census reports; and public health records (Chamberlain College of nursing, 2017).

    I plan to research information related to medication review/reconciliation, patient safety and medication errors. I will use that along with results from internal related audits on medication reconciliation to compile data to use as a reference. Once compiled, I will be able to use or develop some evidenced-based interventions, comparing how the results would differ if no intervention is implemented. Based on the interventions, we will be able to assess and evaluate possible or actual outcomes.

    Germaine

                                                            Reference

    Chamberlain College of Nursing. (2017).NR439 Week 5: Reading Research Literature-Implementing the Study, Data Collection Methods [Online lesson]. Downers Grove, IL: DeVry Education Group Â

    Professor and Class,

    The results of the research conducted by the American Nurses Association (2014) gave a picture of the state of the nursing field in 2014 and projections into the near future of the nursing field. In 2014, the growth rate of nursing jobs spiked while employment of nurses grew to 3.44 million jobs. The salaries of RN’s were highest in the Western United States and the Northeast. Overall, RNs placed in the top ten of largest employment in the United States. I found it surprising that the average age of nurses under 40 dropped from 54% to 29.5% between 1980 and 2008, with the average age of nurses in 2014 being 50. The sampling of the nursing workforce from the study says that the nursing workforce is one full of growth.

    I believe the intent of the researcher that designed the survey was to show the growth in the nursing field and the prospect of future growth for the field. The intent was also to show the diversity of the nursing field with age and gender of those employed in the field. The research helps to serve as a way for those considering a career in nursing to see how the field is faring in the workforce industry.

    According to Houser (2018), validity is how well an instrument consistently measures what it is supposed to measure. Reliability is how consistent the tool is for gathering and measuring the data. Reliability and validity are important because, without results that show consistent results with tools that are measuring at the same level at all times, the research could be considered false.

    I would collect data by first observing and recording the sessions in which new mothers are educated on PPD. I would then give the new mothers surveys on whether they understood the information and education given to them. After a period of three months, I would contact the mothers participating in the study to determine if any of the mothers have experience and sought treatment for PPD. Then after six months, I would again contact the mothers to determine again if any of the mothers experienced or sought treatment.

    I hope everyone has a great Thanksgiving!

    Houser, J. (2018). Nursing research: Reading, using, and creating evidence (4th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.

    Kimberly,

    Thanks for your insight on this article.  I agree that the results can be used to serve those considering nursing as a career, I can see many guidance counselors having this available.  On the other hand, I can also see organizations reviewing this information to evaluate, I hope, where we are heading in the future.  Some states need to compare and prepare so they have the help they need in the future.  The research leaves us open to opinion as the intent and conclusion for all these facts have not been stated.  I am left to wonder, since it is an ANA article, who the target audience really was. I think nursing.  According to Houser, “the best audience is one that can put the research results into practice” (p.452).

    Thanks, Sharon

    Houser, J. (2018). Nursing research: Reading, using, and creating evidence (4th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.

    Dear Kimberly and Class,

    Does the ANA article state the steps the author took in the data collection process? Is this an important step for the researcher to include in the report/article?

    Thanks,

    Dr. Taulbe

    Armondo Evora,

    This was the same point I made in my discussion post. Where our sector highly differentiates itself with others is that ours involves the well being of people. Although its reassuring to know there’s a high demand in our field, it also puts allot of pressure on us to fill in the gaps. A good example of this is the higher nurse to patient ratios we are expected to work when our departments are short staffed. In my Emergency department there are many days we are forced to work a 5:1 ratio. This is all due to the lack of nurses available in our field. I am thankful of articles like this one that present these qualitative forms of research as evidence of a shortage in nurses and the demand we must fill to properly care for the people we love (Noble, 2015).

    Bryan Alvarez

    American Nurses Association. (2014). Fast facts: The nursing workforce 2014: Growth, salaries, education, demographics & trends. ANA.

    Noble, H., & Smith, J. (2015). Issues of validity and reliability in qualitative research. Evidence-Based Nursing, ebnurs-2015.

    Good evening class and professor,

    The healthcare system in the US is one of the most critical sectors because it determines the health and well-being of the citizens. An article by American Nurses Association (2014) addresses the current situation of the nursing workforce in the US. This article covers the statistics regarding nursing growth rates which is categorized by states, a comparison of the nursing salaries by states, distribution of education level, demographics and trends. The main facts brought out in this research is that in the near future, the nursing needs are expected to experience a significant amount of growth (at least 15% growth rate) with 10 states expected to account more than half of this job growth. This will be accompanied by a subsequent increase in the number of nurses employed by 20.2%. The intent of the author of this research is to show the current situation of the nursing needs in the US. This information is important because it would help nursing policy makes and governmental bodies concerned with healthcare make informed decisions.

    The most important aspect that a researcher should consider when designing survey tool is the validity and reliability of the instrument. According to Noble & Smith (2015), reliability is the extent at which a data collection instrument produces reliable and stable results while validity is how well an assessment tool measures what is it supposed to measure. The importance of having a valid and reliable data collection instrument is that the researcher is assured of obtaining accurate, unbiased and reliable results which help in making a correct inference of the subject matter of interest (Neuman, 2016). When conducting my research, I will use survey instrument as my main data collection tool. I will collect data from the study participants y presenting them with the tool which will contain questions addressing my nursing clinical issue and they will be expected to give accurate and genuine responses.

    -Armando

    References

    American Nurses Association. (2014). Fast facts: The nursing workforce 2014: Growth, salaries, education, demographics & trends. ANA.

    Neuman, W. L. (2016). Understanding research. Pearson.

    Noble, H., & Smith, J. (2015). Issues of validity and reliability in qualitative research. Evidence-Based Nursing, ebnurs-2015.

    Dear Armando and Class,

    Research is to be a path for others to follow. Can you follow the process of data collection in the ANA article? Do you believe that the researcher has an obligation to state the methodology followed?

    Thanks,

    Dr. Taulbee

    Good evening professor and class,

           The research that collected this data used different sources such as U.S. Dept. of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment Statistics, Health Resources and Services Administration, The U.S. Nursing Workforce: Trends in Supply and Education, The National Council of State Boards of Nursing and The Forum of State Nursing Workforce Centers 2013 are all the standard sources for data collection. These mentions sources are the standard organization which will collect the data by doing the survey, and are accepted worldwide. The data collected from different sources are quantitative and are very much authenticated for any analysis with respect to nursing current scenario. The drawbacks of using a survey as a data collection tool might include such as some parts of the data are missing, due to incomplete survey. One potential problem with written surveys is the nonresponse bias. The answer choices provided on a survey may not be an accurate reflection of how the participants actually feels and respond in nursing data. The benefits of using this tool are it allows the researchers to collect a large amount of data in a relatively short period, less expensive than many other data collection techniques, and allow researchers to gather a large quantity of data relatively quickly and cheaply.

    -Armando

    Dear Armando and Class,

    Research articles have to provide specific information to the reader. What are the specific items that must be put into a valid research article? Does the ANA have any of those components?

    Dr. Taulbee

    Good evening class and professor,

            I believe the ANA researcher was trying to show the different areas of nursing and its future growth in are field. This is a quick but somewhat accurate chart of key points in nursing. You need to convince your reader that your methods and results are both reliable and valid.  The more results prove consistent over time and reflect accurate representations of the total populations under study, the more scientifically reliable they are. Validity determines whether the research truly measures what it was intended to measure, or how truthful the research results are. Researchers generally determine validity by asking a series of questions, and will often look for the answers in the research of others.  Each type of research design has its own standards for reliability and validity.

    -Armando

    Good evening Instructor and Class,

      I consider ANA have some of this components. Writing a successful research paper is not easy work. Specific items that must be put into a valid research article are;

    • Be Specific: A research paper should be specific. It should maintain its focus on the given subject of research.
    • Measurable: A research paper must contain specific, proven research, and cites all research sources and related literature.
    • Attainable: A research paper must provide a thesis statement, one that answers the research question and contributes to the knowledge of the given subject.
    • Realistic: A research paper is objective and realistic. Should it be made to present interpretations, arguments, or evaluations, then it should do so based on valid evidence from reliable sources.
    • Time: A research paper cannot be written without the researcher knowing the limits, timeframes, and focus of the required work.

    Regards,

    Lilliam

    References

    Chamberlain College of Nursing. (2017).NR439 Week 5 Lesson [Online lesson]. Downers Grove, IL: DeVry Education Group.

    Houser, J. (2018). Nursing research: Reading, using, and creating evidence (4th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.

    GradeSaver (2017) “Elements of a Successful Research Paper”. Retrieved from: http://www.gradesaver.com/writing-help/elements-of-a-successful-research-paper (Links to an external site.)

    What are the specific items that must be put into a valid research article?

    Dr. Taulbee,

    Our text tells us that, Validity tells us that the instrument will consistently measure the right thing; Content validity involves a subjective judgment about whether a measurement makes sense; Construct validity indicates that a measurement captures the hypothetical basis for the variable; and Criterion-related validity is the correlation of the instrument to some external manifestation of the characteristic (Houser, 2018).

    The specific items that must be put into a valid research article are:

    Specific: A research paper should be specific. It should maintain its focus on the given subject of research – answering a specific research question – and not be inconsistent or aimless as to convey information or make claims on other, unrelated topics or subjects.

    Measurable: A research paper must contain specific, proven research, and cites all research sources and related literature.

    Attainable: A research paper must provide a thesis statement, one that answers the research question and contributes to the knowledge of the given subject. It can’t propose to answer a question that doesn’t relate to real life or isn’t based on an existing body of knowledge.

    Realistic: A research paper is objective and realistic.

    Time: A research paper cannot be written without the researcher knowing the limits, timeframes, and focus of the required work. Without the writer / researcher stating the scope and limitations of the research paper, it is likely that the thesis statement will be hampered by an inability to answer the given research question or focus on the given research subject (gradesaver.com)

    I believe that the ANA follows these items. It provides specific information that has been proven by a multitude of research. It also cites its references and is very realistic. It is also updated regularly and keeps relevant information.

    Germaine

                                                               Reference

    Houser, J. (2018). Nursing research: Reading, using, and creating evidence (4th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.

    GradeSaver (2017 “Elements of a Successful Research Paper”. Retrieved from: http://www.gradesaver.com/writing-help/elements-of-a-successful-research-paper

    Armando, great information.  Thank you for sharing and providing further insight into this topic. Your post went into great detail and taught me more on this subject. It is undeniable that the tools that we use to collect data need to be reliable and valid.  Data is collected often time in numbers and according to Houser (2015), these numbers must be testable, consistent, precise, and accurate in order to be reliable and valid.  Regardless of the type of research done, results must be valid and reliable to be published and used in clinical practice.

    I believe reliability and validity go hand in hand.“Reliability is a reflection of the consistency with which the instrument records the measure,” whereas “validity indicates the extent to which a measure accurately measures what it is supposed to measure” (Houser, 2015, p. 219). Both reliability and validity are important characteristics when determining the precision and accuracy of the results. I appreciate how you discussed further the levels of measurements. Each of the measurements of data all have pros and cons.

    Reference

    Houser, J. (2015). Nursing research: Reading, using and creating evidence (3rd ed.). Denver, C.O.: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

    Dr. Taulbee & class,

    The nursing workforce 2014 presented trends in nursing growth, salaries, education and demographics. The results collected were based off statistics collected from government agencies such as U.S. Dept. of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Health and Human Services Administration and so on, making this a quantitative study, which as we discussed last week, a study with measurable data, such as statistics and percentages. The results are consistent with nursing growth and need for the future. It is projected that nursing will have more jobs available than any other profession until 2022, with a need to produce 1.1 million nurses to occupy job needs (American Nurses Association, 2014).

    I believe the intent of the researcher was to look at nursing trends now. By looking at the education and demographics of nursing now, you can foresee where the needs will be in the future. Looking at the salaries can help gage the most desirable places to work as well as the places that will be more difficult to fill job needs because of low wages.

    To get the best results of a study the data must be reliable and valid. Reliable is having the results be consistent and dependable. Validity is the accuracy of the data received. To test reliability the researcher can do the test/retest, to assure answers match appropriately. Also, the researcher could ask 2 or 3 similar questions to compare (Sullivan, 2011). Validity can be measured based on the strength of its link to the research question, or being able to consistently measure what is supposed to be measured (Houser, 2018).  These two factors can make or break a study because if you don’t have reliability and/or validation the results cannot be excepted as true.

    My clinical issue is studying the effectiveness of using teach-back method to educate patients with heart failure to decrease hospital readmissions. The data collection and measurement method I would use is the traditional paper-and-pencil then manually enter the information into an analytic system (Houser, 2018). I would collect the data with the help of discharge planning about patients being admitted and discharged with CHF. When teaching the nurses how to do teach-back, I would request they record on a flow sheet, date/time and topic whenever utilizing teach-back. I would ask the flow sheet to be kept in a central location such at the nursing station. I would enter all the data received into a system to be analyzed.

    Have a great week & Happy Thanksgiving!

    American Nurses Association. (2014, September 2). Increased Investment Needed to Produce 1.1 Million RNs, Head Off Nursing Shortage. Retrieved from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ThePracticeofProfessionalNursing/workforce/Increased-Investment-Needed-to-Produce-11-Million-RNs-Head-Off-Nursing-Shortage.pdf (Links to an external site.)

    Houser, J. (2018). Nursing research: Reading, using, and creating evidence (4th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.

    Sullivan, G. M. (2011). A Primer on the Validity of Assessment Instruments. Journal of Graduate Medical Education, 3(2), 119-120. doi:10.4300/jgme-d-11-00075.1

    Dear Shannon and Class,

    Can you tell if the author of the ANA article used valid and reliable statistics?

    Thanks,

    Dr. Taulbee

    Hello Professor Taulbee and class,

    Any test that is valid must be reliable, according to Houser, “An instrument will be only as strong as it is reliability…Reliability tells us that an instrument will be consistent, validity tells us that the instrument will consistently measure the right thing.” (2018, p. 204). In the ANA article the statistics used consistently measured  the stated fact of the nursing workforce growth, salaries, education, demographics and trends thus showing precise and accurate data representation of the population study where correct conclusions are drawn from the sample. The statistics were derived from standard acceptable organizations thus one can surmise that the author of the ANA article used valid and reliable statistics.

    Marlene

    Reference

    Houser, J. (2018). Nursing research: Reading, using, and creating evidence (4th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.

    Dr. Taulbee,

    To tell if the author of the ANA article used valid statistics, I asked myself, do the statistic relate to what is intended to be researched?  The statistics are related to the topic which is trends in nursing growth, salaries, education, demographics, and location. Therefore, the statistics are valid (Institute for Work & Health, 2016). To tell if the author of the article used reliable statistics, I first found the definition of reliable. “Reliability measures precision or the extent to which test results can be replicated” (Zaki, Bulgiba, Nordin & Ismail, 2013). I think this is a bit tougher to tell by the article if the statistics are reliable because there is no replication presented. I imagine the results would be duplicated if retested, but I don’t that is not apparent in the article.

    Shannon

    Institute for Work & Health. (2016). What researchers mean by…validity and reliability. At Work,(84). Retrieved from http://www.iwh.on.ca/wrmb/validity-and-reliability

    Zaki, R., Bulgiba, A., Nordin, N., & Ismail, N. A. (2013). A Systematic Review of Statistical Methods Used to Test for Reliability of Medical Instruments Measuring Continuous Variables. Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, 16(6), 803-807. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3758037/.

    Shannon,

    I find your post very informative.  Needing to produce more than 1.1 million nurses in the next few years, according to Amercian Nurses Association, 2014, is a huge amount.  I was just discussing a situation at where she worked.  A lot of the older nurses are retiring and the younger, newer nurses with their bachelor’s degree, leave to become a PA, or nurse practitioner, so they are 6-8 nurses short every night.  So the nursing shortage is real.

    As for the old paper and pencil method, I would probably do the same thing.

    Great post!  Thank you,

    Kim

    References: American Nurses Association, (2014). Increases Investment Need to Produce 1.1 Million Rns, Heading Off the Nursing Shortage.

        Shannon, excellent post. It is essential to have reliability and validity to provide credible research results. All information and data gathered should be precise to the subject matter. Validity is more challenging to test than reliability. Complicating this process is the need to test validity on multiple populations to determine who it is valid for under which conditions (Houser, 2015). The data collection tools can include using available information, interviews, observations, questionnaires, or focus groups discussions. Data collection techniques help the researcher to systematically collect information regarding the objects of survey and the environments in which they happen. Systematic data collection makes it easier to answer the study questions in a conclusive way (Houser, 2015).

                             Reference

    Houser, J. (2015). Nursing research: Reading, using and creating evidence (3rd ed.). Denver, C.O.: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

    Professor Taulbee and class,

         The report read as it stated in the title ” Fast Facts The Nursing workforce 2014: Growth, Salaries, Education, Demographics & Tools” ( ANA, 2014). This report was defined to give fact in an easy to read summary from the data collected. The report also had job openings, length of time before getting a job, and comparisons of rural to urban statics. While giving facts, one of the underlying current of the report seemed to be to entice women and men to choose nursing as a career choice. This report could have be utilized by high school students, population looking a career change, educators and medical organizations (giving an outlook of their future needs on the healthcare workforce). This report was quantitative design study.” Data used in quantitative studies will be numeric nature and subject to statistical analysis” (Houser, J., 2015, pg.220). There were comparisons of different states as well as demographic areas, actual numbers as well as percentages were given.

    The research study has to have valid facts, which means the facts have to be pertinent to the research as well as accurate. “Reliability tells us an instrument will be consistent, validity tells us the instrument will consistently measure the right thing” (Houser, 2015, pg. 202).  In my research study, I would use the use of surveys. ” The researcher strives to select a measurement tool that is appropriate to answer the research question, is unbiased, and has precision in measuring the variables being studied” ( Hood, 2014,pg. 247). The wording of the survey would have to specific to my research question to obtain the data that I need to answer my question. The questions would be close-ended which would speed up the interpretation of data. The survey using the Likert scale would be the best choice the answer selection. To prevent measurement error in my questionnaire, I would have to be sure the questions were not too emotionally charged or in the use of leading questions.

    Thank you, Audrey

    American Nurses Association. (2014). Fast Facts: the nursing workforce 2014: growth salaries, education, demographics & trends. ANA.

    Hood, L. (2014). Leddy & Pepper’s Conceptual bases of professional nursing (8th ed.).  Baltimore, MD: Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

    Houser, J. (2015). Nursing research: reading, using, and creating evidence ( 3rd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett.

     

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