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NR439 Week 3: Research Problems, Designs, and Sample

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This is a graded discussion: 50 points possible

Week 3: Research Problems, Designs, and Sample

This week, we will discuss the research design and sample for your nursing clinical issue. The research design flows from the research question and outlines the plan for the study that will answer the research question. The design identifies the major components of the study. It is important to remember that there is no one best design for a research study.
  1. After you review the designs, describe which research design you would expect to find when searching for evidence relevant to your own research question from Week 2. Why? Explain your answer.
    Professor,

    The size of the sample is important and according to Houser (2018), there are many factors that determine the  expected sample size.  In qualitative research the sample size is sufficient when saturation and redundancy are achieved.  Saturation is described as when there is no new information or insight emerging and the results are repetitive.  This point is decided on by the researcher and should be documented as well to give more validity to the research.

    In quantitative research, the sample size is based on power.  Power determines that the sample size is large enough to detect a difference in the outcome variable.  How the power is determined can effect the outcome. A low power or sample size will be less likely to produce significant results.  Larger sample sizes are more likely to produce a normal distribution and significant results.

    Tara

    Houser, J. (2018)., Nursing Research Reading, Using, and Creating Evidence. Burlington, MA: Jones &          Bartlett Learning

    Dr. Taulbee and Class,

    The size of the sample is important for research. According to Houser, in quantitative research, at least 30 subjects are needed and no more than 400 is necessary. In quantitative research, it is a mathematical process that does not have a minimum or maximum range. It is based on power in the outcome variable.

    “Determining the number of subjects needed for a quantitative study is part mathematics, part judgment. If power analysis is not available, an estimate can be achieved by applying the broad rule of thumb of using 15 subjects for every variable that will be studied. Include at least 30 subjects, but recognize that enrolling more than 400 subjects is rarely necessary. Although this rule of thumb produces a very general estimate, it can be useful as an initial projection of necessary sample size.”(Houser 182).

    “In quantitative studies, the standard for determining sample size is power. Adequate power means there are enough subjects to detect a difference in the outcome variable. The calculation of power is a mathematical process and may be done either prospectively (to determine how many subjects are needed) or retrospectively (to determine how much power a sample possessed). The ultimate sample size in a study is a function of three factors: the significance level needed, the power, and the magnitude of any differences found (i.e., effect size) (McCrum-Gardner, 2010 (Links to an external site.)).”(Houser 174).

    Reference:

    Houser, Janet. Nursing Research: Reading, Using and Creating Evidence, 4th Edition. Jones & Bartlett Learning, 20161214. VitalBook file.

    Excellent post Jessica!

    This is what Houser says about Qualitative and Quantitative study sample sizes,

    “In qualitative studies, sample size is rarely predetermined. Although a researcher may have a general number of informants in mind” and although some standards have been set for particular kinds of qualitative studies such as phenomenology’s criteria are generally not strict. The general standard for sample size in a qualitative study is the achievement of redundancy and saturation (Trotter, 2012). Saturation has been achieved when the researcher concludes that responses are repetitive and that no new information is being generated. Documenting saturation is one of the ways that qualitative researchers can improve the trustworthiness of a study. Saturation may be achieved with as few as six or eight subjects, or it may require much larger numbers”. (Houser, 2018).

    “In quantitative studies, the standard for determining sample size is power. Adequate power means there are enough subjects to detect a difference in the outcome variable. The calculation of power is a mathematical process and may be done either prospectively (to determine how many subjects are needed) or retrospectively (to determine how much power a sample possessed). The ultimate sample size in a study is a function of three factors: the significance level needed, the power, and the magnitude of any differences found (i.e., effect size) (McCrum-Gardner, 2010)”. (Houser, 2018).

    Germaine

    Reference

    Houser, J. (2018). Nursing Research: Reading, Using and Creating Evidence, 4th Edition. [Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781284138887/

    Tara,

    I like that your question brings to light the importance education has in preventing errors. As nurses we take for granted the importance continuing education has in our daily practice. I think if nurses were presented actual numbers on the impact education has in preventing errors, these courses would be taken more seriously.

    Bryan Alvarez

    Houser, J. (2018). Nursing Research Reading, Using, and Creating Evidence. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

    The most common sampling method is the convenience sample; therefore, many of the studies that you find for evidence use this sampling method. What are the implications for using a convenience sample on the way you interpret and use the findings?

    Class,

    Finding and developing significant problems for research is essential to improving outcomes for patients, families, the profession of nursing, and the healthcare environment. Research problems indicate topics requiring investigation, which may warrant a change in nursing practice.

    The Course Outcomes (COs) we will apply for Week 3 include:

    • Apply research principles to the interpretation of the content of published research studies. (PO 4 & 8).

    The research design flows from the research question and outlines the plan for the study that will answer the research question. The design identifies the major components of the study. It is important to remember that there is no one best design for a research study. Try to understand qualitative and quantitative research designs.

    This week your first assignment is due on PICOT/Evidence Appraisal. Please make sure you watch the Brainshark directions for this assignment.

    Thanks,

    • Hello Professor and class,

      For the evidence-based study, it is vital for the researcher to understand the most convenient approach that can be employed to provide the desired results. The choice of research design is essential since the outcomes of the study are based on the kind of the design employed. For this study, both qualitative and quantitative designs will be used to ensure credible results are obtained. The outcomes will facilitate the process of making critical decisions on whether to wash hands with soap or hand sanitizer when trying to prevent the spread of infection. Relevant authorities will use the information to develop the necessary policies that can govern the hygiene in the society with the aim of improving the economy. According to Pals et al. (2015), the qualitative design will aid in interpreting the data relating to the effects of the different hygienic options that can be employed when preventing spreading of infection. Velayutham et al. (2017) noted that quantitative approach would aid in dealing with the numbers when providing the cases.

      According to Houser (2018), the kind of sample used in research influences the outcomes of the entire process. The researcher has the responsibility of choosing the most viable sample that can help in yielding positive results after the study. Convenience sampling will help in identifying the participants who are directly involved in washing hands for different purposes. Using this method helps towards easy access to the respondents hence saving on the financial resources associated with the research process. The outcomes will be viable since the researcher will have enough time to interrogate the participants hence collecting enough evidence from the field by observing the behaviors exhibited when using the soap and a different case when sanitizer is used to prevent infection.

      References

      Houser, J. (2018).  Nursing research: Reading, using and creating evidence (4th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.

      Pals, R. S., Hansen, U. M., Johansen, C. B., Hansen, C. S., Jørgensen, M. E., Fleischer, J., and Willaing, I. (2015). Making sense of a new technology in clinical practice: A qualitative study of patient and physician perspectives. BMC Health Services Research, 15 (1), 1-10.   doi:10.1186/s12913-015-1071-1.

      Velayutham, S. G., Chandra, S. R., Bharath, S., and Shankar, R. G. (2017). Quantitative balance and gait measurement in patients with frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer diseases : A pilot study. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine, 39 (2), 176-182. doi:10.4103/0253-7176.203132.

      Lucia,

      Using both qualitative and quantitative methods is a good approach to your research.  According to Houser (2018), research that takes advantage of the strength of both methods is becoming essential in all fields.  It will add validity to your outcomes which will be used to drive patient care.  Your research particularly fits into this category as hand washing behavior and perception can both be measured.  Good luck to you.

      Tara

      Houser, J. (2018)., Nursing Research Reading, Using, and Creating Evidence. Burlington, MA: Jones &          Bartlett Learning

      Thank you Tara,

      I do believe that both qualitative and quantitative designs needs to be used in order to ensure credible results are obtained. With the outcomes it will facilitate the process of making critical decisions.  Good luck to you!

      I too choose to use quantitative method, as I felt it best suited my research appropriately. It states in our text “analyses are useful for many research goals” (Houser, 2018) As in your research and in mine, we will need the information at hand and the confirmation of the outcome. Best of luck

      Jennife

    Instructor and class,

    Since in my research question, I have an intervention and comparison making it easier to identify a quantitative study design for this particular research question, I would expect to find studies with quantitative research designs.  These studies are also characterized by the higher research rigor including reliability and validity of research results.  Houser (2015) indicates that qualitative studies are often subjected to limitations such as research bias, limitations due to the chosen data collection methods, and more.  Therefore, I hope to find quantitative studies, and I am especially interested in controlled randomized trials, case control, and cohort studies.

    The implications for using a convenience sample on the way a researcher interprets and uses the findings are the probability of unreliable research data (Parahoo, 2014).  The evidence derived with the help of convenience sample is less authoritative as noted in Houser (2015).  Convenience sample does not allow significant generalizability of research results (Houser, 2015).  Convenience sampling may lead to sampling bias due to the homogeneity of the research population and lack of diversity peculiar to the broader population.  Moreover, convenience samples increase the probability of over-representing characteristics that are local to the study.  Melnyk and Fineout-Overholt (2012) indicate that it is very important to invest enough effort into eliminating the threats to the study results validity and generalizability through intending to use the sample of sufficient size.  According to Houser (2015), “sampling bias increases sampling error as well as the chance the researcher will draw misleading conclusions” (p. 161).

    References

    Houser, J. (2015). Nursing research: Reading, using and creating evidence (3rd ed.). Denver, C.O.: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

    Melnyk, B. M., & Fineout-Overholt, E. (2012). Evidence-based practice in nursing and healthcare: A guide to best practice. (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins.

    Parahoo, K. (2014). Nursing research: principles, process and issues. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Class and Professor,

    According to Houser (2018), quantitative research identifies and measures variables in a valid way using statistics to create a level of confidence and rule out random errors.  Tight control is used when determining the protocols followed and the subjects selected.   McCusker (2015), does suggest that although quantitative data is efficient, when used alone it may miss contextual details.  Qualitative research on the other hand measures an experience or perception.  In depth interviews, observations and case study results are used to make conclusions.

    My research question compares the number of pre laboratory specimen errors made after an education intervention, to the number of errors made before the education intervention.  This would be quantitative research and I would expect most of the evidence I would find would be primary research based on experimental design.  Inclusion criteria would be needed when identifying my sample as very specific requirements will be needed to be used in the study.

    Tara

    Houser, J. (2018). Nursing Research Reading, Using, and Creating Evidence. Burlington, MA: Jones &           Bartlett Learning.

    McCusker, K. Gunyadin, S. (2015). Research using qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods and                   choice based on the research. Perfusion, 30(7), 537-42.

    My research question has to deal with retained surgical sponges and the research as to which method works actually works and is true to the scan. RF MAT vs RF WAND. Quantitative research design works well for my research question. Unlike qualitative research the research doesn’t actually have to be involved and is less concerned about the outcome. Unlike my situation I am extremely concerned on the subject. Quantitative research “studies are often concerned with managing threats to internal validity.” (Houser 2018)

    According to our article about Qualitative research “Investigation of phenomena, typically in an in-depth and holistic fashion, through the collection of rich narrative materials by using a flexible research design”. (Application of AACN levels of evidence 2014) Houser describes qualitative research “Qualitative researchers are less concerned with the effects of extraneous variables because they are not measuring effects at all, but rather attempting to understand phenomena” (page 134 Houser)

    Quantitative research “designs are appropriate when the purpose of the study is to measure the effect of an intervention, test a theory about relationships, or describe a phenomenon with precision. Quantitative designs involve measurement of some sort, so they will ultimately involve the analysis of numbers.” (page 136. Houser)

    Houser, J. (2018). Nursing research: Reading, using, and creating evidence (4th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.

    H., Barnason, S., Donnelly, B., Hill, K., Miley, H., Riggs, L., & Whiteman, K. (2014). Choosing the best evidence to guide clinical practice: Application of AACN levels of evidence. Critical Care Nurse, 34(2), 58–68. doi:10.4037/ccn2014411. Retrieved from https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ccm&AN=104061234&site=ehost-live (Links to an external site.)

     (Links to an external site.)

    Dear Jennifer,

    Good job on your post. What are some designs within the Quantitative paradigm?

    Thanks,

    Dr. Taulbee,

    According to our text book data for quantitative analysis are represented numerically, so the reliability of data collection, accuracy of data entry, and appropriateness of analytic processes are critical for drawing the correct conclusions” (Houser, 2018). I would concider quantitative something you could measure.

    Houser, J. (2018). Nursing research: Reading, using, and creating evidence (4th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.

    Professor,

    I believe my research question is a quantitative design. According to our textbook, “quantitative designs are appropriate when the purpose of the study is to measure the effect of an intervention.” (Houser,2018)  I am going to try and reveal the true relationship between a cause and effect between two variables. (House,2018)   Qualitative date is information about qualities. This is information that can be measured. Some examples are how something feels when you touch it, or the color of someone’s eyes. Quantitative data is information about numbers. Some examples are someone’ height or weight or how many infections a patient gets.

    Houser, J. (2018). Nursing research: Reading, using, and creating evidence (4th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.

    Dear Patricia and Class,

    Explain the difference between retrospective and prospective studies.

    Thanks,

    Dr. Taulbee

    Dr. Taulbee and class,

    Retrospective studies uses data from a resource that has already happened.  Here you are relying on the accuracy of the standard.  For instance, if I were to look for data in a chart review,  I would be researching what has already happened.  If I wanted to find out about bed sores and turning patients every two hours, I would have to pay attention to not only the number of bed sores documented but also that patients were turned every two hours.  If its not charted, was it done or just forgotten to be charted?  This is also known as the secondary data for a study (Houser, 2018).

    Prospective studies are found to be more reliable due to the control the researcher has in the data.  The researcher is in charge of the study, the subjects and the data collected (Houser,2018).  For example, to research the number of bed sores patients develop who are on an every two hour turn schedule, the researcher can choose a unit, a documentation process to verify turns on time and the specific patients and staff involved.  Therefore, the reliability of the study is more likely to be accurate.

    Thanks, Sharon

    Houser, J. (2018). Nursing research: Reading, using, and creating evidence (4th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett

    Professor and Class,

    I would expect to find quantitative designs while locating evidence for my research question. According to Houser (2018), quantitative designs are appropriate when the effectiveness of an intervention is measured. Because my research question is to find the effectiveness of the intervention of postpartum education and screening as opposed to the comparison of no postpartum education and screening, quantitative designs will be helpful. At first, I felt that maybe the qualitative designs would be most appropriate, but when looking at Houser’s (2018) meaning of qualitative design, it seems that quantitative is a better fit. Qualitative designs would explain the meaning of postpartum depression to help the reader understand the condition (Houser, 2018). But, my research question is not one of understanding what postpartum depression is, but rather how education and screening help new mothers feel more comfortable relaying their symptoms to a physician.

    The way I understand convenience sampling is that while it has a targeted population to meet certain criteria, they are often considered “accidental” samples since the population just happens to be in an area close to where the researcher is conducting their study (Etikan, 2016). To use an example, convenience sampling would consist of researchers in a labor and delivery floor of a hospital studying a woman postpartum and happening across another woman on the same floor. I think it would be more useful to my research question if the researchers in the articles I use had samples of women they chose more selectively than happening across women, so their outcomes will be easier to study.

    Etikan, I. (2016). Comparison of Convenience Sampling and Purposive Sampling. American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics, 5(1), 1. doi:10.11648/j.ajtas.20160501.11

    Houser, J. (2018). Nursing research: Reading, using, and creating evidence (4th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.

    Hi Kimberly,

    You wrote some very interesting information in your post. Although quantitative and quaitative designs are somewhat different there are some similarities, such as they both report the research problem andthey both follow the 6-step research model. I was also have some difficulty deciding which is most appropriate and fitting for my project.  However, I also chose the quantitative design because I also doing a more comparative analysis.  It will be interesting to see the results of the research.  The way I understand convenience sampling is just as the name states “convenience” so there is no venture beyond what is outside of the norm.  You use what is accessible.  So like you, if I am doing my research on comparing the use of antiseptic and aseptic in a hospital setting, there is no using information from another source, because this is what is accessible for the type of research, it is somewhat confined.

    Good luck on your research project.

    Sonia

    Dear Kimberly and Class,

    You did an excellent job explaining the difference between quantitative and qualitative research designs. Explain the methods section of the research report.

    Thanks,

    Dr. Taulbee

    Professor Taulbee,

    The methods section of a research paper gives the reader a clear view of how the experiment was completed or the research was done. The methods section describes in detail how each experiment answers the PICOT question and gives information into how an experiment was conducted, including equipment used and the analyzation of results.

    For example, in one of our required reading articles for the week, researchers studied how a new handheld device helped test for Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy (CAD) in diabetic patients (Pals, et al., 2015). In the article, the methods section described that the methods used were observations of consultations in which the physician reported the results of the CAD test and to interview the physicians that relayed the results to patients. According to Pals et al. (2015), the data they received was then analyzed to determine how the device helped the patients and physicians make sense of the information the CAD testing device reported to them.

    Pals, R. S., Hansen, U. M., Johansen, C. B., Hansen, C. S., Jørgensen, M. E., Fleischer, J., & Willaing, I. (2015). Making sense of a new technology in clinical practice: A qualitative study of patient and physician perspectives. BMC Health Services Research15(1), 1-10. doi:10.1186/s12913-015-1071-1. https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=her&AN=109884152&site=eds-live (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. (Links to an external site.)

    Good evening Professor and classmates.

    As our reading brings out “Convenience sampling depends on subjects that are easily available for the researcher and it is more cost effective than probability samples”(Houser,2015).This type of sampling could become bias because the researcher picks and chooses who will represent the research.I think my study is going to be a quantitative study because “The subjects are recruited and selected for the study based on the criteria”(Houser 2015). I am going to select the patients that smoke and offer smoking cessation aids and other smokers  will be offered psychotherapy. I also think my research differs from Probability because only selected patients would be chosen who meet the criteria such as smokers, nonsmokers will not be included in my research.

    Houser, J. (2015). Nursing research: Reading, using and creating evidence (3rd ed.). Denver, C.O.: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

    Dear Raquel and Class,

    Explain information you will find in the literature review section of a research report.

    Thanks,

    Dr. Taulbee

    Good evening Professor and classmates

    The literature review section is a brief section that tells about the context of the research.It also supports the researchers question and it states why the question is important.It will provide sources of work already done.The review should help the researchers argument and show the importance of the research.

    References

    Houser, J. (2015). Nursing research: Reading, using and creating evidence (3rd ed.). Denver, C.O.: Jones & Bartlett Publishers

    Professor and class,

    As it was explained in our book “quantitative design as when the purpose of the study is to measure the effect of an intervention, test a theory about relationships, or describe a phenomenon with precision”(Houser, 2015) And this week’s lesson states that “Qualitative designs are chosen to understand the meaning of the phenomena and may form the basis of theories”(CCN, 2017). I originally was under the impression I had to pick one design and stick with it, but this is not the case. There may be certain parts of our research that might be explained better by one design and other parts that are explained better by the other. Since my research will end up being a mix of the two I think I will be using the mixed method design which include both quantitative and qualitative approaches.

    References

    Houser, J. (2015). Nursing research: Reading, using, and creating evidence (4th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.Bryan Alvarez

    Chamberlain College of Nursing. (2017).NR439 Week 3: Reading Research Literature-Problems and Designs. [Online lesson]. Downers Grove, IL: DeVry Education Group.

    Bryan Alvarez

    Dear Bryan,

    Can you explain why you think your research design would have both quantitative and qualitative properties? What about your research question leads you to believe that the 2 designs would answer the PICOT?

    Thanks,

    Dr. Taulbee

    Dear Yenisleydi and Class,

    Good job on your post. Why is the literature review section of a research article important?

    Thanks,

    Dr. Taulbee and Class,

    The literature review section of a research article important because the more trustworthy your work will be. It gives your readers objective documentation as to your writing.

    According to owlcation.com “A literature review helps you create a sense of rapport with your audience or readers so they can trust that you have done your homework. As a result, they can give you credit for your due diligence: you have done your fact-finding and fact-checking mission, one of the initial steps of any research writing.”

    Reference:

    https://owlcation.com/misc/literature_review

    Instuctor Taulbee,

    Thank you for your feedback and your question.  A literature review allows the writer to organize pertinent information by utilizing both summary and synthesis (Houser, 2015).  Research needs a foundation in which one can begin to piece ideas together in order to improve a process, gain new insight about a problem or explore new challenges that are faced.  Literature reviews provide insight into where more research is required to delineate best practice.  Literature reviews also critically examine the literature to provide a comprehensive view of the evidence regarding the topic of interest (Houser, 2015).  Searching for previously published work allows thoughts to be integrated with other ideas that have already been explored.

    Reference

    Houser, J. (2015). Nursing research: Reading, using and creating evidence (3rd ed.). Denver, C.O.: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

    Dr. Taulbee and Class,

    “The literature review is an important aspect of most research manuscripts. The review seeks to synthesize published research findings that relate to your topic of interest. It often exposes gaps in the current knowledge base”. (Neill, 2017).

    It is important because: It describes how your proposed research is related to prior research; It shows the originality and relevance of your research problem; It justifies your proposed methodology and It demonstrates your preparedness to complete the research.

    Germaine

    References

    Neill, C. (2017). Writing & Research. Writing a Literature Review. Radiation Therapist, 26(1), 89-91.

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