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Contraband Management On Inpatient Psychiatric Unit

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Abstract

The issue of patient safety continues to inform the psychiatric care of inpatients suffering from mental illness through the institutionalization onto the modern practices of psychiatric nursing. In most cases, confinement will arise from safety out of both the fear or public safety and societal stigma. Others will include benevolently aims in protecting these individuals from any kind of body harm. The main challenge for many hospitals however has been detection and confiscation of such items.  The following project argues that within the environment of a psychiatric unit, safety should be maintained as one of the predominant value and management of risk in psychiatric nursing and care.

The aim of this project is to develop a standardized list of items deemed to be unsafe from entering a locked-down inpatient psychiatric hospital and to educate staff, patients, and visitors about the listing.  With the guidance of the Director of Nursing, an inter-professional team used evidence-based practice to identify items considered to be unsafe. The project also identified how unsafe items were entering the unit, and determined strategies that could be used to prevent these items from entering a psychiatric hospital.  This project was done through a standardized search process as part of the best practice to avoid items from reaching the psychiatric unit.

The capstone project was done for a period of five weeks. Where the researcher conducted a literature review of credible sources, and best practices were obtained to come up with a contraband management protocol. To complete the project, the student came up with a team of professionals who supported the implementation process, conducted meetings, made presentations, created posters, and came up with a checklist to educate staff, patients, and visitors about banned objects from entering the units. The team was also trained with a nurse educator and developed competency sessions for the staff. The implementation resulted in a standardized contraband management process that was designed based on evidence-based practice. The student collaborated with various stakeholders and, through the application of this project, was able to affect change within the organizational practice.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION

Then chapter provides an introduction to the development of search protocol as a way of improving the management of contraband in psychiatric institutions. The section will come up with the background to the problem, objectives of the project statement and rationale.

1.1 Background to the Problem

The entry of contraband items in a mental hospital is unavoidable. However, it is worth all staff efforts to try to stop what will inevitably enter the unit. Tracking process for contraband is consistent from unit to unit in the hospital. One staff may give a patient an item that another team member deemed contraband; therefore, it requires every staff effort and cooperation to keep these items out of the facilities.  There are various reasons why nurses and paraprofessional personnel are not consistent with the current contraband process involving patients and visitors at the pavilion.  Some of the causes identified were variation in items staff considered to be contraband, inconsistency of admission process, the high turnover rate for direct care staff and frequent movement of personnel to work in an unfamiliar population of patients with different rules and cultural norms. According to Chizh (2015), when a team member is familiar with the milieu it is very critical to maintaining safety (p.63).  A retrospective review of all contraband reporting was read. A significant factor was staff interpretation of what was considered contraband and the rules surrounding contraband confiscation and accommodation. Woodthrope, Bakhsh, and Paton (2013) states, “The lack of a commonly shared definition of quality or patient safety are consistent with the lack of prominence of these concepts in training” (p.388). Vincent advised, “until you have the concepts, the practice will elude you” (as cited in Woodthropet et al., 2013   p.388).

 Problem Statement

Detecting prohibited items within the Pavilion is essential in maintaining the safety of patients, staff, and visitors. However, detecting such banned items can be very problematic. These unsafe items can contribute to dangerous behavior towards self and others.  Without a clear and concise process currently defined, the gap in the current contraband process jeopardizes the safety of patients, staff, and visitors.

Practice Change, Quality Improvement, or Innovation

This project aims to improve safety and management of contraband on the inpatient psychiatric unit. For the hospital to achieve the contraband management process, the hospital must prevent the entry of items that are potentially hazardous to patients, staff, and visitors to the floors by implementing a standardized search process.
            There are several proposed solutions to prevent potentially hazardous items from entering the units.  The proposed change which forms the primary focus of this project entails developing a standardized process for a contraband search that can be applied to every patient by every staff working at the front line at the pavilion.   Winokur, Loucks, and Raup (2018) state the use of a standardized procedure or protocol is an effective way to have consistency in practice from unit to unit.  The collaboration of a master prepared nurse and other behavioral health leaders will be utilized to approve the proposed change and offer insight on how to engage key stakeholders. It will be critical to identify the key stakeholders and comprehend how they will affect the process of change throughout the organization

The rationale for the Practice Change, Quality Improvement, or Innovation
Contraband is defined by Webster dictionary “as smuggled goods.”  In most Psychiatric hospitals, contraband is an item that is potentially hazardous to patients, staff, and visitors. According to Abela-Dimech, Johnson and Strudwick (2017), the safety of staff, patient and visitors on psychiatric inpatient units is compromised by unsafe items entering the unit, (p.104). The procedures for searching patients and their belongings vary among staff and units. Policies can also be involved in guiding the entire process.  There was an instance where on one unit a patient was given items confiscated by another staff and put away. However, on the next shift, another staff gave the patient access to the confiscated item without any reservation for safety.  This patient gained access to a cigarette, a lighter, and proceeded to the bathroom to smoke.  Another staff from a different unit gave a patient a bag from the restricted area without checking the content of the bag.  This action allowed the patient to have access to a razor blade, scissors, and a lighter.  These items are in the current policies and procedures for a contraband check as items not allowed without supervision.  There seems to be a breakdown in the compliance and consistency of the contraband check process. According to Abela-Dimech et al. (2017), when implementing a process to improve safety on a psychiatric inpatient unit, there must be “clear and consistent communication of the rule” (p. 104).  There is an increase in contraband found in patients’ possession in the hospital.  This trend compromises safety for the patients, staff, and visitors.  Evidence-based practices and best practices will be required to effectively reduce unsafe items (contraband) from entering the inpatient psychiatric unit. This plan of action consists of identifying the problem, the cause(s) of the problem, and developing a clinical nurse search approach process for stakeholders to increase buy-in and motivation. 

Chapter 2: Review of the Literature

Credible Sources

            A literature review was conducted of 30 reliable sources regarding security rules, banned items and milieu safety improvement process through various databases including WGU library, Google scholar, free full PDF, and PubMed.  All articles were published in the last five years and reviewed based on inclusion, evidence grade and applicability to the project. The database sources were peer-reviewed, and a general appraisal of findings and significance for the project. These sources are in Appendix A, Credible Sources.

 Best Practices

Based upon the literature review, best practice identification for contraband search and creating and maintaining a safe environment for staff and patient is creating interventions involving standardized communication.  The proposed change which forms the primary focus of this project entails developing a standardized process for a contraband search that can be applied to every patient by every staff.  The literature review also supports a standardized procedure or protocol as an effective way to have consistency in practice.

 Evidence Summary

Standardized practice

            Abela-Dimech et al. (2017) support incorporating a safe search protocol showing that standardized method fosters consistency in care, staff, and patient safety, recognizes leadership, reduces the risk of unsafe items entering the unit and reduces the confrontation from patient and visitors on an inpatient psychiatric unit.  Chizh (2015) argues that staff who are familiar with the standardized process of their work area will know how to respond to patient’s needs accordingly and prevent conflict to the team. The model allows learning about group behaviors in its unique setting through observation as a unit rather than a separate entity (Batra, Duff, Smith, 2014, p.2).   Plsek and Greenhalgh advised because complex adaptive systems require that, for organizations to maintain equilibrium and survive, the organizations must respond to an ever-changing environment as (cited by Wojciechowski et al., 2016, p.1).

 Abela-Dimech et al. (2017) argue that having a standardized search protocol to improve patient’s safety is a critical element that distinguishes organization where patient and staff maintain a safe unit. Establishing a high performing culture of effective communication among staff, patients, and visitors would reduce the risk of contraband entering the floors. Woodthrope et al. (2013) reveal that the lack of commonly shared definitions of quality or patient safety is consistent with the lack of prominence in these concepts. Therefore, education and training are vital to maintaining contraband safety on the inpatient psychiatric unit. Winokur et al. (2018) concluded that the use of a standardized procedure or protocol is an effective way to have consistency in practice from unit to unit. Standardized proceedings instituted by nursing staff reduced the use of restraints by more than 50%, allowing staff nurses to participate in knowledge-based decision making through clinical opportunities for collaborative work within the organization.

           

Establishing a high performing culture of effective communication among staff, patients and visitors would reduce the risk of contraband entering the floors. Woodthrope et al. (2013) reveal that the lack of commonly shared definitions of ‘quality’ or ‘patient safety’ is consistent with the lack of prominence in these concepts. Therefore, education and training are vital to maintaining contraband safety on the inpatient psychiatric unit. Hoke (2015) suggests that people with mental illness most likely misunderstand because of the lack of awareness of mental illness. Marcus, Herman, Frankel, and Cullen (2017) indicated that 94.9% of the altercation in a mental health hospital resulted in “little or no harm and could have been prevented” (para.2). Laidlaw et al. (2017) suggested strategies which included the use of mental detecting technologies to facilities search for unsafe items entering the units. D’Lima et al. (2016) explained that the “social stigma surrounding mental illness issues “affect safety on the unit. To keep the environment safe, one must improve communication and understanding among staff and patients (para 2).  Evans, Wojda, Jones, Otey, and Stawicki (2015) recommended that early detection of unsafe objects is one of the best practice strategies to avoid an incident with dangerous items in the inpatient setting. For organization to prevent contraband or hazardous items from entering inpatient psychiatric unit, the organization must ensure that their communication is defined and consistent.  According to Abela-Dimech and Johnson (2017), sharing of discussion about a process by leaders is an effective way to implement change.  A study by Metse et al. (2014) revealed that there must be a joint effort from the inpatient and outpatient community mental health centers to communicate the health benefits to these patients.  This study implies that the staff and community should offer more focused intervention on the communication of the addictive behaviors and its impact on the patients’ reactions and safety.

         The Mental health staff is at high risks of being assaulted by patients than any other inpatient setting.   Novice mental health staff is at higher end risks of being assaulted by patients. Some studies have examined systematic approaches to improve safety on the inpatient psychiatric unit. Chizh (2015) suggested that knowing the surrounding is “critically important” to maintaining security in the inpatient setting (p. 63).   Abela-Dimech et al. (2017) suggested that the education of the staff patient and family is the key to keeping unsafe items of the units.  The risk reduction is higher for banned objects when all are aware. Moreno-Poyato et al. (2016) agreed that the therapeutic connection from patient to staff or vice versa is the bedrock for maintaining safety in psychiatric hospitals.  Wykes et al. (2018) suggested that educating the staff further improves the perception of the environment, hence benefiting both staff and patient to maintain security. A study conducted by Olsson, Audulv, Strand, and Kristiansen (2015) revealed that most of the patients on the inpatient psychiatric setting want to have a safe, trusting relationship with staff.   Slemon, Jenkins, and Bungay (2017) identified strategies for risk reduction associated with the care provided to patients in a psychiatric hospital.   Applying these strategies to staff and patient can maintain a safer environment. According to Marcus et al. (2017), safety on the psychiatric unit outside the VA hospital has been overlooked for research. Ridenour et al. (2015) argued that psychiatric employees are at higher risks of violence than other healthcare staff. Stevenson et al. (2015) Concluded that most psychiatric employees are complacent with the intensity of violence they encounter on their jobs.  
Recommended Practice Change, Quality Improvement, or Innovation

Contraband is defined by Webster dictionary “as smuggled goods.”  In most Psychiatric hospitals, contraband is an item that is potentially hazardous to patients, staff, and visitors. According to Abela-Dimech et al. (2017), “The safety of staff, patient, and visitors on psychiatric inpatient units is compromised by unsafe items entering the unit” (p.104). The procedures for searching patients and their belongings vary among staff and units. Policies are also involved in guiding the entire process.  There was an instance where on one unit a patient was given items confiscated by another staff and put away. However, on the next shift, another staff gave the patient access to the confiscated item without any reservation for safety.  This patient gained access to a cigarette, a lighter, and proceeded to the bathroom to smoke.  Another staff from a different unit gave a patient a bag from the restricted area without checking the content of the bag.  This action allowed the patient to have access to a razor blade, scissors, and a lighter. Some of these items are listed in the current policies and procedures for a contraband check, as items not allowed without supervision.  There seems to be a breakdown in the compliance and consistency of the contraband check process. According to Abela-Dimech et al. (2017), when implementing a process to improve safety on a psychiatric inpatient unit, there must be “clear and consistent communication of the rule” (p. 104).  There is an upward trend in contraband found in patients’ possession after the admission process.   This trend compromises patient, staff, and visitors’ safety.  Evidence-based practices and best practices would be required to effectively reduce unsafe items (contraband) from entering the inpatient psychiatric unit. This plan of action would consist of identifying the problem, the cause of the problem and developing a clinical nurse search approach process for the stakeholders to increase buy-in and motivations. The team addressed the problem with contraband entering the hospital because of the risk it poses to the safety of patients, staff and visitors’ safety. West (2014) argued that it is the facility responsibility to keep documentation of all patient’s safety screening.

In conclusion, understanding the process of patient searches, as well as the responsibilities of those involved in completing the contraband band search required all team members to have the same understanding of what is contraband, and the impact it has on patients, visitors, and staff’s safety. From the literature reviews, there is evidence for the proposed solution to support fixing the problem through standardization of protocol, improving communication, and relationship between patient and staff. Stocking, Clancy, Bowman, Terry, and Wye (2014) revealed in their study that employee’s perception and attitude toward patient could have an impact on their cooperation with   the treatment plan.

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Chapter 3: Implementation

Capstone Project step

During the first week, the advanced practice nurse approved the proposed change. The advanced practice nurse articulated the stakeholder’s effectiveness in implementing the change throughout the hospital.  During the second week, a literary review of thirty- plus sources was conducted to determine the best evidence-based practice articles on contraband search protocol, and security on a psychiatric inpatient unit. The Director of Nursing met with her management team about the topic of safety and contraband entering the hospital.  A standard search process and a list of contraband items were identified based on a literature review.   The third week was used to determine the best evidence-based practice for the contraband search process to improve patient safety on the unit which would align with the organization’s goals. The contraband search process was assessed on the fourth and fifth weeks, and competency was written and reviewed with the Nurse Educator. The stakeholders conducted a meeting with the student. There was a presentation given by the student on identifying safety concerns of contraband items on the unit. The student and unit managers created a poster and other visual aid to educate staff, patients, and visitors about the process.
        Changes made to the original implementation plan.

Most of the original implementation plan stayed on course.  The contraband management protocols steps were all completed as stated by the student.

    The Barrier associated with the implementation of the plan.

The barriers to the contraband management process were identifying and gathering all the necessary information to assess the hospital accommodation. The obstacle to the proposed change was due to a stall in communication with stakeholders. The Nursing Director had several meetings with senior leaders during the implementation phase of the student capstone.    

Overcoming barrier

            The student overcame most of the barriers of this project by exercising patience, resourcefulness, and good communication. Staff resistant to change was another barrier to the implementation. The team expressed their concerns about learning a new process. The student overcame this barrier by focusing on the safety for staff, patients, and visitors based on the evidence-based practices from the literature review.

  Trans professional Relationships

By conducting the capstone project, the student was able to develop professional relationships with various leaders at the hospital. The student collaborated with the Director of Nursing, all four-unit managers, and the front-line staff in facilitating the implementation of the proposed change in contraband management.  The Director granted the permission and provided access to resources and equipment to heighten the student’s knowledge of working with the hospital system. The unit managers worked with the student by giving various details and information about patient populations at the hospital.  This kind of collaboration allowed the student to have an insight into the strategic plan of the hospital to provide the best care for the patient and maintain its financial stability.

How relationships facilitated

implementation plan
The Director of Nursing is a vital member of the implementation process of the contraband management project for the psychiatric hospital.  She introduced the student to key stakeholders that would have a direct impact in the organizational change. The Director of Nursing created the culture of buy-in from the key stakeholders in the organization by showing support and interest. The Director of Nursing guided the student by developing a culture of standardization that could have a positive impact on the safe outcome of the patient while aligning with the mission and values of the organization. The risk manager and the unit managers helped identify possible risks associated with the implementation. Their experiences and knowledge gave the student the confidence that was needed to lead the front-line staff. The mentoring of all the nursing leaders involved with the implementation gave the student the support that was required to develop the contraband search management program that was attainable for the future participants and hospitals.

Chapter 4 Post capstone Project Considerations

Capstone Successes

Successful aspects of the capstone was triumphant in several ways. It gave the student and the leadership team at the hospital the opportunity to improve patient safety on a psychiatric inpatient unit through professional leadership with the organization and the patient population. The Capstone was an opportunity to reduce items that were deemed unsafe from reaching the patient or the staff by implementing a standardized search process.  The number of incidents of contraband item reaching the pilot units decreased significantly after the implementation of the new method.

Impact on future projects 

            The capstone has created awareness of safety and the need for change at the hospital. Acknowledging the need for change is the first excellent steps in fostering change. The Director of Nursing and the unit managers were impressed with the capstone project that they want to create a safety coach committee to continue the safety alertness and awareness using current evidence-based practice.  All stakeholders recognized the Director of Nursing for creating the buy-in environment for the staff to promote safe patient outcomes.  The Director of Nursing can create positive change with future project by creating this buy-in effect.

Capstone Challenges

Aspects of the capstone that did not go well. The most challenging part of the capstone project was the period when communication was delayed from the student to all stakeholders due to scheduling conflicts. The meetings scheduling process with stakeholders were complicated.

Impact on future projects

            The Director of Nursing and all the stakeholders recognized and agreed that patient, staff and visitor’s safety was necessary to create an environment that is providing a positive patient outcome, and financial sustainability.  As a result, from the piloted units, senior stakeholders requested implementation of the contraband management process across all the units.

 Evidence and Current Practice

The capstone project was able to bridge the gap between evidence and current practice by first identifying the need to maintain and ensure milieu safety on an inpatient psychiatric unit. The literary research conducted during the capstone project supports standardized procedure and protocol as effective ways to have consistency in practice. Winokur, Loucks, and Raup (2018) encouraged the use of a standardized process, or protocol as an effective way to have consistency in practice from unit to unit.  Chizh (2015) argued that staff who are familiar with the standardized process of their work area would know how to respond to patient’s needs and accordingly prevent conflict with them. Abela-mech et al. (2017) revealed incorporating a safe search protocol showing that standardized practice reduces the risk of unsafe items entering the unit. Woodthrope et al. (2013) explained that the lack of commonly shared definitions of ‘quality’ or ‘patient safety’ is consistent with the lack of prominence in these concepts. According to Abela-Dimech et al. (2017), when implementing a process to improve safety on a psychiatric inpatient unit, there must be “clear and consistent communication of the rule” (p. 104).   Slemon, Jenkins, and Bungay (2017) identified strategies for risk reduction with care provided to patients in psychiatric hospitals.   Applying these strategies to staff and patients, they can maintain a safer environment. The evidence suggested that the need to create and maintain a safe milieu on an inpatient psychiatric unit was a needed practical change for the hospital to preserve patients’ safety and remain financially stable. A good contraband management process based on improved patient outcome, evidence-based practice, and the organization’s mission and values can improve and increase the organization’s reputation within its surrounding communities.

Post Implementation plan

Implementation of the capstone project on contraband management process was a success. The short-term goal for the hospital and the organization is to continue using this process on the current units for three months while collecting data. The goal is to get approval for this capstone project to be a mandatory part of all new employee orientation.  The long-term goal of the capstone is to become part of the hospital expected standard for patient care.  To maintain the credibility of the process, the leadership team has decided to develop a safety committee team to monitor and retain the contraband management process as part of the long-term goal.  The safety committee will be responsible for reviewing and updating the process as needed based on evidence-based practice.

Resources Required for Post-Implementation Support

            To implement the project, the leaders of the units would need to identify front-line staff to be part of the safety committee to monitor and uphold the practice of safety in the hospital. Staffing of the units would need to be on an ongoing revision process to allow time off for the selected staff members would attend meetings about safety coaches’ best practices.  Since there are nine units within the hospital with a different population of patients at various stages of mental illness, it would require planning for staff meetings to update each other, which is part of keeping standardization and consistency in the process and training of staff.  The project would create some additional work for individuals who are chosen to be on the committee. The leaders would ask for more funding for individuals who are working on safety and contraband management project as a change agent.

 

 

Chapter 5: Reflection

Integrate clinical reasoning with organizational, patient-centered, culturally appropriate strategies to plan, deliver, and evaluate-evidence-based practice.   

The capstone enabled the student to research best evidence-based practice to develop a safe search contraband management while using a standardized protocol to deliver patient-centered care that is measurable. The contraband management process included areas that focus on patient-centered-care employing the evidence-based practice. The performance improvement area involves the participation of participants in at least one performance improvement project (PI) that is clearly defined to a clinical practice area and focuses on one of the national patient safety goals established by the joint commission. The Joint Commission standards are the highest standards of an objective evaluation process to help health care organizations assess,, measure, and improve performance centered on their patients. The student applied the PDSA cycle to the project for evaluation. The PDSA cycle is an organized plan which allows the project leader to plan, do, study and act on a change within the clinical focus area.  According to the Improvement of Health Institute, the PDSA cycles is a model for improvement by providing a framework for developing, testing, and implementing change leading to improvement. (“Plan-Do-Study”, 2018).

Construct inter professional teams to communicate, coordinate, collaborate, and consult with other health professionals to advance a culture of excellence.

            The capstone allowed for the design of an organization and leadership team that promotes high-quality care through constructing interprofessional team to communicate, coordinate, collaborate, and consult with other health professionals to advance a culture of excellence.  Abela-Dimech et al. (2017) suggested that the education of the staff, patient, and family is the key to keeping unsafe items from entering the units. Plsek and Greenhalgh advised because complex adaptive systems require that, for organizations to maintain equilibrium and survive, the organizations must respond to an ever-changing environment as (cited by Wojciechowski et al., 2016, p.1). Moreno-Poyato et al. (2016) agreed that the therapeutic connection from patient to staff or staff to patient is the bedrock for maintaining safety in psychiatric hospitals. Wykes et al. (2018), suggested that educating the staff about safety improves the perception of the environment, hence benefitting both staff and patient to maintain safety. A study conducted by Olsson, Audulv, Strand, and Kristiansen (2015) revealed that most of the patients on the inpatient psychiatric setting want to have a safe, trusting relationship with staff. The support of the senior leaders was necessary to ensure that the capstone project was implemented and carried out. The collaboration, coordination, and communication of the various stakeholders were vital to the success of the project. The implementation of the contraband management search process allowed the leaders to provide safe, high-quality practice for best patient care and outcome.

Credible Sources

Author(s)

(Formatted as an in-text citation)

Database

 (CINAHL, EBSCO, Cochrane, Pro-Quest)

Peer-Reviewed (Yes/No)

Applicability

 

(Yes/No)

Evidence Grade (Strength/ Hierarchy)

Appraisal                                     

(Summary of findings; how findings inform your project?)

Inclusion

 

 (Yes/No)

 

Abela-Dimech, & Johnson (2017)

WGU library

yes

yes

6/Single qualitative studies

Explores Failure mode and effects analysis framework to develop a standardized search protocol. Shows analysis benefits and opportunities for improvement in safety.

Yes

Abela-Dimech, Johnson. & Strudwick (2017)

WGU library

yes

yes

7/expert opinion

The article describes a standardized approach for safe searches implementation. Reveals that managers’ and staff nurses’ knowledge of the model must align for safety on the unit.

Yes

Batras, Duff, & Smith. (2016).

Google Scholar

yes

yes

1/systematic review

This study reveals the understanding of organizational changes strategies for trans formational leadership theory.

yes

Chizh, (2015)

PubMed

yes

yes

7/expert opinion

Describes a standardized approach for ensuring the milieu is safety for patients and staff by providing a step by step approach.

yes

 

D’Lima, et al. (2016)

PubMed

yes

yes

1/systematic review

A systematic review of patient safety in a mental health setting.  Exploring the existing research based on patient safety in an inpatient setting.

yes

Winokur, Louck& Raup (2018)

WGU Library

yes

yes

6/single qualitative studies

Meeting the complex needs of the BH patients in an ED environment presents a continuing challenge. Developing a coordinated approach that involves all stakeholders using an STP to focus interventions and responses provides optimal chances for success in achieving progress toward key performance outcomes

yes

Laidlaw et al. (2017)

Sage pub med

yes

yes

2/ Randomized trial 

Randomized trial of different security devices to detect contraband items in mental health hospitals.

yes

Ellis, Rufino,

Allen, Fowler&

Jobes (2015)

WGU

yes

yes

3/quasi experiment

Utilized the CAMS assessment to keep patient safety and to reduce suicidality

no

Moreno-Poyato et al., (2016)

Google Scholar 

yes

yes

1/ systematic review

Describes how therapeutic relationship inpatient psychiatric care is essential to keeping the unit safe.  The relationship is built on trust and respect allowing the caregiver to care for the patient and allowing the patient to receive the care.

yes

Kelly, Fenwick, Brekke & Novaco (2016)

WGU

yes

yes

6/Descriptive study

A study conducted to measure if staff well-being (depression, anger and physical health effect the safety of the unit.  The study concluded that the creation of a therapeutic environment should be an essential goal for a psychiatric to reduce violence.

no

Marcus, Hermann, Frankel, & Cullen (2017)

Google scholar

no

yes

2/ Randomized sample

Results indicate that the patient’s safety events in the psychiatric unit were relatively common, but most of the incidents resulted in little or no harm to the patient

yes

Stevenson, Jack, O’Mara& LeGris (2015)

WGU

no

yes

4/Non -experimental design descriptive study.

Describes how the experiences of nurses on inpatient psychiatry hospitals can influence understanding of patient violence and influence interventions to prevent the violence 

yes

Metse et al. (2014)

PubMed

yes

yes

2/Randomized study

This protocol describes a randomized controlled trial that aims to assess the efficacy of linking mental health inpatients to community-based smoking cessation supports upon discharge as a means of reducing smoking prevalence.

yes

Margaret (2015)

WGU

Yes

Yes

1/ Systematic review

The study concluded that nurses are the target of both verbal and physical violence by patients. The nurses need and support from their organization to do their jobs

No

Smith, Lynch, Stephens &Kistner (2014)

WGU

Yes

Yes

4/descriptive review

Describes how the best facet to predicating aggression and violence on an inpatient psychiatric unit is the patient’s self-perception reporting.

No

Hoke (2015)

WGU

No

Yes

7/ expert opinion

 Addresses the concerns of educating the public about mental illness and the population that is affected.

yes

Jeffrey (2014)

WGU

Yes

No

7/ expert opinion

Evaluates the effectiveness of solitary confinement to the federal prison system and how it increases the risk of violence.

No

Ridenour et al. (2015)

WGU

Yes

No

4/non-experiment

Study result showed that to prevent violence in the workplace is being aware of the risk and knowing which risk factors are significant.

yes

West (2014)

WGU

yes

yes

7/ expert opinion

Describes the steps in making the environment safe for patients and staff by removing contrabands once the patient was noted to be a danger to self and others.

yes

Stockings, Clancy, Bowman, Terry & Wye (2014)

PubMed

no

no

1/randomized controlled trial

Describes community centers involvement with mental health patients to help reduce violence and contraband on inpatient psychiatric hospital

yes

Evans, Wojda, Jones, Otey,& Stawicki (2015)

WGU

No

Yes

7/expert opinion review

Explores the practice of intensive monitoring and prevention plan to reduce the risk of intentional patient ingestion of contraband objects

Yes

Oster, Gerace, Thomson&Mur-Cochrane (2016)

Free full PDF

yes

Yes

7/Expert opinion

Compare the hours of restraint and seclusion internationally and the behaviors that lead to these interventions.

NO

Woodthorpe, Bakhsh &Paton (2013)

WGU

Yes

Yes

4/nonexperimental

Develop recommendations for improving patient safety within mental healthcare

Yes

Sebergsen, Norberg &Talseth (2016)

WGU

yes

Yes

6/ Descriptive study

Nurses’ openness and sensitivity to the changing care needs of persons who suffer from psychotic illness create moments of confirmation within caring acts that concretely help the persons to feel better, and that may enhance their health. The results show the importance of taking the experiential knowledge of persons who have experienced psychotic illness seriously to develop and increase the quality of mental health care in acute psychiatric wards.

NO

Pileno, Morello & Losa-Iglesias (2016)

WGU

Yes

Yes

6/Qualitative study

Explored the nurse’s concepts of working as a team to keep patients safe in an inpatient psychiatric hospital

NO

Martin (2015)

Google Scholar

yes

No

 

 Explored the value of having a physical exam for mental health nursing.

No

Giarelli et al. (2017)

Google Scholar

yes

yes

5/meta-synthesis

Findings from this study can be used to improve high-quality care

for hospitalized patients with acute mental health problems. Findings

confirmed that nursing staff must be continually vigilant primarily for

self-protection as they were the principal target of violence and aggressive

acts.

NO

Wykes et al. (2018)

Free full PDF

yes

yes

1/Randomized controlled trial

A discussion of improving staff perception of mental illness can improve patient compliance with rules and regulation of the unit. 

yes

Fellinger, Waldhor, Bluml, Williamsb& Vyssoki (2018)

Free full PDF

yes

No

4/ case-control studies

The study concluded that women spent more time being hospitalized than men.

No

Olsson, Adudulv, Strand&Kristiansen (2015)

Free Full PDF

Yes

yes

6/Qualitative study

Description of how patients use different strategies to reduce violence on the unit, therefore, increasing self-esteem and accepting the current situation allowing the staff and patient to co-exist in creating a safer environment.

Yes

Slemon, Jenkins & Bungay (2017)

Free full PDF

yes

yes

7/Expert opinion

Explores the use of effective risk assessment of the client and how it impacts the invention utilization to create and maintain a safer environment for both staff and patients

Yes

 

Read PDF : Contraband Management On Inpatient Psychiatric Unit

 

 

 

 

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